Armenia Directory

Armenia is nestled in the South Caucasus region, bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran to the south. Its strategic location has historically made it a crossroads of trade and cultural exchange between Europe and Asia.



Armenia experiences a continental climate with hot summers and cold winters. However, due to variations in elevation, microclimates exist throughout the country. In the Ararat Valley, temperatures can soar above 40°C (104°F) in summer, while mountainous regions remain cooler year-round.


Armenia boasts a diverse array of wildlife, including species such as the Caucasian leopard, brown bear, Armenian mouflon, and various birds of prey. The country’s national parks and protected areas provide vital habitats for these creatures.

Longest Rivers

The two longest rivers in Armenia are the Aras and the Debed. The Aras River forms part of Armenia’s eastern border with Azerbaijan, while the Debed flows through the northern Lori region.

Highest Mountains

Mount Ararat, an iconic symbol of Armenia despite being located just across the border in Turkey, stands at 5,137 meters (16,854 feet) above sea level. Within Armenian territory, Mount Aragats holds the distinction of being the highest peak, reaching 4,090 meters (13,419 feet).



Armenia has a rich archaeological heritage dating back to the Neolithic period, with evidence of early settlements and the development of agriculture. The region was home to one of the world’s oldest civilizations, the Kingdom of Urartu, which flourished around the 9th century BCE.


In antiquity, Armenia was a prominent kingdom at the crossroads of major empires, including the Persian, Roman, and Byzantine. It was the first state to adopt Christianity as its official religion in the early 4th century CE, a decision that has profoundly shaped Armenian identity and culture.

Medieval Period

During the medieval period, Armenia experienced periods of independence as well as foreign domination, including rule by the Byzantine, Persian, and Ottoman Empires. The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia emerged as a powerful state in the 12th century, known for its cultural and intellectual achievements.

Modern Age

In the 20th century, Armenia endured significant challenges, including the Armenian Genocide perpetrated by the Ottoman Empire during World War I, resulting in the deaths of over a million Armenians. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Armenia declared independence and embarked on a path of nation-building and democratic development.


Armenia has a population of approximately 3 million people, with Armenians constituting the majority ethnic group. The capital city, Yerevan, is the largest urban center, home to over a third of the country’s population. Other ethnic groups in Armenia include Yazidis, Russians, and Assyrians.

Administrative Divisions

Regions and Population (2022 estimate)

  1. Aragatsotn – Population: 132,900
  2. Ararat – Population: 282,300
  3. Armavir – Population: 265,800
  4. Gegharkunik – Population: 235,800
  5. Kotayk – Population: 257,600
  6. Lori – Population: 235,800
  7. Shirak – Population: 258,300
  8. Syunik – Population: 141,200
  9. Tavush – Population: 121,800
  10. Vayots Dzor – Population: 51,300

10 Largest Cities by Population

  1. Yerevan
  2. Gyumri
  3. Vanadzor
  4. Vagharshapat (Etchmiadzin)
  5. Hrazdan
  6. Abovyan
  7. Kapan
  8. Ararat
  9. Armavir
  10. Gavar

Education Systems

Armenia offers free public education up to the secondary level, with a strong emphasis on literacy and numeracy. The country is also home to several top universities, including Yerevan State University and the American University of Armenia, which offer a range of undergraduate and graduate programs in various fields.



Armenia is served by several airports, including Zvartnots International Airport in Yerevan and Shirak International Airport in Gyumri.


The Armenian railway network spans approximately 825 kilometers, connecting major cities and towns across the country.


Armenia has a well-developed highway system, with major routes including the M-1 and M-2 highways connecting Yerevan to other regions.


While Armenia is landlocked, neighboring countries such as Georgia and Iran provide access to ports on the Black Sea and the Persian Gulf.

Country Facts

  • Population: 3 million
  • Capital: Yerevan
  • Language: Armenian
  • Religion: Christianity (predominantly Armenian Apostolic Church)
  • Race: Majority Armenian, with minority groups including Yazidis and Russians
  • Currency: Armenian dram (AMD)
  • ISO Country Code: AM
  • International Calling Code: +374
  • Top-level Domain: .am