History of the Philippines
According to localcollegeexplorer, from antiquity to the beginning of European expansion (the last quarter of the 16th century), the Philippines was a peripheral part of the cultural and historical Malay-Indonesian area. Since the 1580s to con. 1890s The Philippines is a colony of Spain that freed itself from colonial dependence as a result of the national revolution of 1896–98. With the victory of the rebels in 1898, the First Independent Republic was formed and the democratic Constitution of 1898 was adopted. In the same year, under the terms of the Paris Peace Treaty, which ended the Spanish-American War of 1898, the Philippines became a colony of the United States. Since 1901 and almost the entire 1st floor. 20th century The Philippines is a colony of the United States, which proclaimed a liberal course to prepare Filipinos for self-government (in particular, they introduced a system of elections and parties since 1907). Since 1934, the United States introduced a regime of autonomy in the Philippines – a 10-year “transitional period” before full sovereignty. A constitution was adopted in 1935, and M. Quezon, a Filipino president, was elected (1935–44). In 1941-45 the Philippines survived the Japanese occupation. After the expulsion of the occupiers (spring 1945) – the beginning of decolonization. In April 1946, the first president of the independent Philippines, M. Rojas (1946–48), a protege of the United States and an extremely conservative politician, was elected. The American model of decolonization, which in many ways infringed on the sovereignty of the Philippines, did not suit the majority of Filipinos. Social tension culminated in the bloody peasant war of 1948–53, led by the communists. The decisive role in crushing the uprising was played by R. Magsaysay, from 1950 he was Minister of Defense, then President of the Philippines (1954–57). All R. 1950s – ser. 60s in the Philippines, a kind of facade “oligarchic” democracy was established (real power was in the hands of several landowning clans who manipulated democratic laws and institutions). Since 1965, the President of the Philippines has been F. Marcos, who was re-elected in 1969. In September 1972 he introduced a state of emergency in the Philippines, establishing a regime of personal power. His plans for accelerated modernization were not realized due to the growth of corruption, kronism, and the crisis in the economy (the turn of the 1970s-80s). In February 1986, the dictatorship was destroyed as a result of mass bloodless actions in Manila of opponents of authoritarianism (the “power of the people” revolution). For the first time in the history of the Philippines, a woman became president – K. Aquino (1986-92). In 1987 a democratic constitution was adopted. Otherwise, the deepening of the crisis in the economy and destabilization continued. In the 1992 elections, F. Ramos (1992-98), the only one of the “post-authoritarian” leaders who managed to stabilize the situation. In contrast to the reformer Ramos, the 1998 elections were won by a populist, a former film actor J. Estrada, who was convicted of corruption and removed from power in 2000 (the People’s Power-2 revolution). Since January 2001, the President of the Philippines has again been a female politician, G. Macapagal-Arroyo. Her government received a heavy legacy from J. Estrada, and so far attempts to improve the economy and resume the course of modernization have been ineffective.
Politics and Foreign Policy
The formation of the foreign policy of the Philippines and the adoption of foreign policy decisions are concentrated in the hands of the president (maximum authority), the Philippine Foreign Ministry, its head (often also the vice president), the Security Council, and the National Intelligence Coordination Agency. Under the 1987 Constitution, the role of the Congress in shaping the foreign policy course was strengthened (international agreements come into force only after they are ratified by 2/3 of the members of the Senate). Since the presidency of Marcos, the foreign policy of the Philippines has been based on subjectivity in international relations, the priority of the tasks of ensuring national interests, the independence and multilateralism of diplomacy. With the multipolar system of foreign policy relations of the Philippines, special attention is paid to active equal participation in regional affairs and new integration processes in the SEEA region. At the same time, the political elite of the Philippines has never been faced with the question of giving up the priority of relations with the United States (weakened in the early 1990s after the withdrawal of American military bases from the Philippines) as a guarantor of regional and national security. Under the Arroyo government, the US military presence in the archipelago has been restored, so far in a format that does not violate the Constitution of the Philippines. As the United States placed the Philippines in a zone of international terrorism, Arroyo brought in US military advisers and counterterrorism experts to assist local troops in operations against Muslim separatists. Increasing pro-Americanism in Philippine foreign policy worries their ASEAN partners (particularly Muslim countries) and causes an increase in anti-Americanism among Filipinos, fearing the possibility of the direct participation of Americans in military operations (in violation of the Constitution). Meanwhile, the Muslim South is still far from peace. One of the reasons is the low professionalism and outdated technical equipment of the Philippine army, the weakest in the ASEAN countries. The army in the Philippines is regular, formed partly on the basis of compulsory military service (from the age of 20), partly from persons hired for 3 years under contracts. It consists of the Ground Forces, the Air Force and the Navy. The total number is less than 200 thousand people. The Constitution fixes the priority of civil power over the Armed Forces, the military cannot engage in business and politics (except for participation in elections). But among a part of the officer corps, dissatisfaction is brewing with the ineffectiveness of state policy,
The Philippines have diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the USSR in 1976).