Brazil Agricultural Products

Brazil Agricultural Products

From the descriptions that date back to the century. XVI shows that from the first period of colonization corn, millet, mandioca, yam, cocoa, banana, tobacco and cotton were known to the natives. Wheat was not known, as well as the hypothesis that sugar cane was already known there, is far from being demonstrated, even if we can argue around the time of its introduction on the soil of Brazil, which certainly…

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Brazil Language

Brazil Language

The national language of Brazil is Portuguese (for indigenous languages ​​see america: Indigenous languages; tupi – Guaraní) which, introduced in the century XVI by the Lusitanian discoverers, in an environment different from that of origin, among a mixed population of indigenous people (especially Tupi-Guaraní), of blacks imported from the Portuguese colonies of Africa, and of whites (mostly from Portugal) has undergone slight modifications. Referring to the article portugal: Lingua, as…

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Argentina Literature

Argentina Literature

Some noble and representative voices of Argentine literature have been extinguished: L. Lugones, who was, and still remains, the master of the new generations, has disappeared and committed suicide; disappeared, even suicidal, the most vehement, the hottest, the greatest Argentine poetess, Alfonsina Storni. And Ricardo Güiraldes is also dead, the most gifted of modern storytellers, whose prose published posthumously (Xaimaca, etc.), if they do not reach his novel Don Segundo Sombra in…

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Bolivia Modern History

Bolivia Modern History

The region, known as Alto Peru until 1825, was conquered in 1538 by the Spaniards led by Hernando Pizarro, then by his brother Gonzalo. Included until 1776 in the viceroyalty of Peru, in 1563 it was however constituted as an autonomous subdivision as Real Audiencia de Charcas, with capital Chuquisaca (today Sucre). For a long time it was subject to the exploitation of the very rich silver and mercury mines,…

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Travel to Chile

Travel to Chile

Chile is the land of extremes. Here are icy polar rains, soaring mountains and one of the world’s driest deserts. Chile consists of a narrow strip of land between the Andes and the Pacific Ocean that is over 4,000 km long, and only 200 km wide in places. The nature is very varied and is protected by several national parks inhabited by llamas, nanoparticles, flamingos, seals and penguins. A generous…

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Italy – the Art of Twisting Part II

Italy - the Art of Twisting 2

The art of arranging ” L’arte di arrangiarsi ” – the art of twisting – is a key concept for understanding Italian society. Although the differences are great between the rich north and the poor south of Italy, there is a widespread tendency for a lot to go “on acquaintances” . 50 percent of Italians get a job after a personal recommendation, 39 percent through a personal contact and only…

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Italy – the Art of Twisting Part III

Italy - the Art of Twisting 3

In the 1994 parliamentary elections, Forza Italia went to the polls on a promise to change Italy. The charismatic Berlusconi promised tax cuts, the fight against bureaucracy and the abuse of power, and he claimed that his own success would become a model for the whole of Italy. And Italian voters were convinced. Berlusconi became Italy’s new prime minister, and not only that: he was to be the longest-serving prime…

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EU Neighborhood Policy Part II

EU Neighborhood Policy 2

6: Ukraine and Russia To date, the neighborhood policy has not contributed to peace and stability in the eastern neighborhood of the EU. In recent times, developments have been particularly negative in Ukraine. This is mainly due to an aggressive and reprehensible Russian policy towards the country. However, some believe that the EU is not entirely without responsibility. These will mean, among other things, that the EU has paid too…

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EU Neighborhood Policy Part I

EU Neighborhood Policy 1

The EU Neighborhood Policy (ENP) was established in 2004, the same year that the European Union (EU) was enlarged by 10 new countries, mainly in Eastern Europe. The purpose of the policy was to create a “ring of veins” around the EU’s new external borders and thus prevent new dividing lines in Europe. The desire was to continue the EU as a peace project, based on an idea that closer…

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Germany: Europe’s New Superpower Part III

Germany - Europe's New Superpower 3

The certainty that they are good at solving challenges is reflected in Germany’s international role. As a large trading nation, they naturally place great emphasis on building a well-functioning global trading system, including the fight against tax havens. But it is in the climate and environmental field that they have excelled most in recent decades. Germany was a leader in the work of establishing the Kyoto agreement , and the…

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Germany: Europe’s New Superpower Part II

Germany - Europe's New Superpower 2

5: A popular country Germany’s handling of the euro crisis aroused associations with the Nazi – infamous cliché (worn-out expression) about the Germans, that they are strict people of order. During street demonstrations in Athens, some posters bearing Hitler’s mustaches on Merkel were displayed, and several European publications made headlines depicting the German Chancellor as authoritarian, possibly a cold and cynical robot. Most Europeans, on the other hand, seem to…

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Germany: Europe’s New Superpower Part I

Germany - Europe's New Superpower 1

Germany has emerged from the shadows of the past, and in a short time has become Europe’s political, economic and cultural powerhouse. How will they use their new position of power ? What is Germany’s relationship with the outside world today? What views does Germany hold during the euro crisis? What makes Germany an “export world champion”? How does Germany differ from many other great powers? After the German war…

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Population Development in the World

Crowded street in China

In the 1970s, global population development – often referred to as a population explosion – was presented as the major threat to peaceful social and economic development. Pictures were taken where the poor part clung to an increasingly crowded planet. It was also warned that the rapid population growth in the south could lead to armed conflicts between the poor and the rich part of the world. (see also later…

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International Law Part III

International law 3

8. As much as possible should be decided nationally International law and national law are two different legal systems . There is increasing integration between these systems , but they can also conflict with each other. The question is what is to be decided nationally, what belongs at the international level, and how, and who, is to decide conflicts on these issues. Brexit is an expression of the fact that…

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International Law Part II

International law 2

4. The individuals and other actors on the rise It has been a long time since international law was merely a legal order that gave states rights and obligations. International law is ultimately for the individuals, not for the states. Today, human rights protect the fundamental rights of individuals . Individuals can also be held accountable for the most serious crimes against other people in international criminal courts. Some of…

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International Law Part I

International law 1

International law regulates both the war in Syria and Brexit. It regulates what states can do in war , and it contains rules for how states can withdraw from agreements. It applies to everything from the trivialities of daily life to how to protect ourselves against climate catastrophe. International law is nothing new in the international community, but the web between states – in the form of agreements between states…

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Nobel Peace Prize 2020: The World Food Program

The World Food Program

Conflict leads to starvation, and someone thinks starvation can lead to conflict. A vicious spiral that Nobel Laureate Verda’s Food Program (WFP) wants to break. But can food distribution contribute to peace? Why did the World Food Program win? What is food security? What is the relationship between food and conflict? Can food distribution contribute to peace? In its founding award, the Nobel Committee highlighted the WFP’s “efforts in the…

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Plastic in the Sea Part I

Plastic in the sea 1

Littering of the sea is a significant problem, and plastic is a serious and large part of this. Animals are dying, and microplastics have been found in humans. How extensive is this littering, and what can we do? What is plastic? What is the problem with plastic? What are the sources of plastic waste? What can happen? Plastic is a material of fundamental importance in modern society. It has numerous…

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Plastic in the Sea Part II

Plastic in the sea 2

5: What are the consequences? Plastic litter of the sea is one of our most serious environmental problems, and it is increasing over time. As pointed out above, the problem is partly visual, something that touches on, for example, tourism negatively. On the one hand, there is a major problem with lost fishing gear, for example so-called “ghost nets”, which continue to fish and contribute to increased pressure on fish…

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Who will own the Arctic? Part I

Russia planted a flag on the seabed below the North Pole

Previously, it was no man’s land. Large parts of the Arctic seabed will now be distributed between the five states that surround the Arctic Ocean. At the same time, sea ice is melting faster and faster, making the rich natural resources in the region more accessible. How are the new boundaries on the seabed determined? What consequences can climate change have for settlement and business development in the Arctic? What…

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Who will own the Arctic? Part II

Who will own the Arctic

5: Large deposits of oil and gas However, some also see new opportunities in climate change. At sea, climate change is a potential “game changer” that opens up new opportunities for utilizing natural resources both in the Arctic Ocean itself and on the seabed. In 2008, when the international oil price was at its highest ever, the US Geological Survey announced that about a quarter of the world’s undiscovered oil…

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Nobel Peace Prize 2017: Towards a World Free of Nuclear Weapons? Part III

Nobel Peace Prize 2017 3

There is no immediate solution to this dilemma. The 1925 Geneva Protocol , which banned chemical and biological weapons, was in practice a non-first-use protocol. At that time it was approx. 50 states in the world, and 40 of them signed with the reservation that as long as the weapons existed, they had to reserve the right to use them in retaliation. Alliance members considering joining the Prohibition Treaty could…

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Nobel Peace Prize 2017: Towards a World Free of Nuclear Weapons? Part II

Nobel Peace Prize 2017 1

Secondly, the rationale for the weapons rests on some form of nuclear deterrence. Seventy years have passed since World War II without it becoming a third. An obvious explanation gives the new element in the equation – nuclear deterrence – the credit for it. It has urged leaders to exercise caution. But the correlation between the presence of nuclear weapons and the absence of war between the great powers can…

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Nobel Peace Prize 2017: Towards a World Free of Nuclear Weapons? Part I

Nobel Peace Prize 2017 1

The nuclear powers are obliged under international law to work for disarmament, but now they are planning as if they intend to keep the weapons indefinitely. Russia and the Western nuclear powers are modernizing their arsenals and the Asians are expanding theirs. At the same time, civil society around the world is working for a world free of nuclear weapons. On Sunday 10 December, the International Campaign to Ban Nuclear…

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Arrival in Brazil Part I

Arrival in Brazil 1

Most travelers come to Rio de Janeiro by air, but this is just one of the many ways to get to Brazil, a country located in South America according to ZIPCODESEXPLORER. The country has several other major international airports and land borders with almost every country in South America (with the exception of Chile and Ecuador). Airplane: Since Varig’s economic troubles in 2005/06, TAM has been Brazil’s premier international airline. It offers flights to…

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Arrival in Brazil Part II

Arrival in Brazil 2

Rail: some trains connect Brazil with Bolivia, Argentina, Uruguay and Chile. The most important rail routes include Rio de Janeiro – Buenos Aires (Argentina), Rio de Janeiro – Sao Paulo – Montevideo (Uruguay), Rio de Janeiro – Santiago (Chile), Sao Paulo – Antofagasta (Chile) and Sao Paulo – Bauru – Corumba – Santa Cruz (Bolivia) – La Paz (Bolivia). Buses run between Brazil and Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. The prices…

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Brazil History

Brazil History

Brazil is the only Latin American country that has adopted the language and culture from Portugal. The native residents of the country are mostly nomadic Tupi-Guarani Indians. Admiral Pedro Alvares Cabral claimed the territory of Brazil for Portugal in 1500. The early explorers brought wood to Europe from the newly discovered land, which contains a red dye, pau-brasil. The name Brazil goes back to this dye. Portugal began colonization in…

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Travel to Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo

Rio de Janeiro

Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the country of Brazil and is known all over the world for the city’s landmark, the Sugar Loaf, but also for the beautiful carnival that takes place there year after year. Various theaters and museums, each with a very different offer, ensure a very balanced cultural offer in this city, in which something can actually be found for every taste.…

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Brazil Entry Requirements

Brazil Entry Requirements

Passport: is a general requirement for traveling to Brazil. The passport (or the temporary passport) must be valid for at least 6 months upon entry. An identity card is not sufficient to enter Brazil. Visa : For tourist and certain business trips (e.g. participation in conferences or competitions, researching business opportunities) with a maximum stay of 3 months during a 6-month period in Brazil, citizens of EU countries and Switzerland…

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