In 2014, 3.0% of the workforce was employed in agriculture and forestry, which generated 2.6% of GDP. The land privatization laws passed in 1991 contributed to the fact that the almost completely collectivized companies until 1961 were gradually transferred to private property. The agricultural area covers around 4.22 million hectares, of which around 71% are arable land, 24% meadows and pastures, the rest are vineyards, orchards and hops. The main cultivation culture is cereals, especially wheat, brewing and fodder barley (Thaya, Schwarzawa, March lowlands) and maize (South Moravia), along with the cultivation of sugar beet (South Moravia), rape, flax (on the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands and in the mountains), Hops (especially on the Elbe around Žatec), wine (in South Moravia and around Mělník in Central Bohemia) and vegetables (on the central Thaya around Znojmo). Livestock breeding (cattle and pig breeding, poultry farming) has its main focus in Bohemia and North Moravia; Sheep farming developed in the Bohemian border mountains. The has a long tradition Pond farming (especially carp farming) in South Bohemia (in the Budweiser and Wittingau basins).
Forestry: 34.5% of the territory is forested. Large forest areas (71% coniferous forests) are located in the low mountain range around the Bohemian Massif and in the Western Carpathians, however, due to environmental damage, the logging is impaired in many places.
The once extensive ore deposits are largely exploited, and the ores that are still present, which can often only be extracted at great expense, are in part no longer used. Coal mining is of the greatest importance; Hard coal is mainly mined in the Ostrava and Karviná districts, and also near Kladno, Pilsen and Oslavany in South Moravia. The dismantling of some of poor quality brown coal (mainly in mining), especially in the North Bohemian brown coal basin between Ustí nad Labem and Chomutov as well as at Sokolov; near Hodonín in South Moravia, lignite is mined underground. Iron ores are extracted in northern Moravia and western Bohemia (Stříbro and Nýřany), and oil and gas in small quantities on the lower reaches of the March in southern Moravia. Stones and earth, especially kaolin (near Karlsbad [Karlovy Vary]), lime and natural stones, are present in all parts of the country. Small amounts of non-ferrous metal ores are also mined.
The electrical energy is mainly generated in lignite-fired power stations (especially in the North Bohemian lignite basin). Hydroelectric power plants were built along the Vltava. The country has two nuclear power plants with six reactor units: the Dukovany plant, which has been in operation since 1985, and the Temelín power plant in southern Bohemia, which went into operation in 2000 (total nuclear power capacity in the Czech Republic in 2015: 3,950 MW). In 2012, fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas) contributed 55.6%, nuclear power 18.8%, and renewable energies (including hydropower) 19.9% to electricity generation. 71% and 74% of oil and gas are imported from Russia.
Even before the First World War, Bohemia and Moravia were industrially highly developed (around 70% of the industrial production of Austria-Hungary). To this day, the country’s economy has been heavily influenced by industry. During the 1990s, Czech industry achieved a comparatively successful modernization. Foreign direct investments also made a significant contribution to this. The share of the manufacturing industry in GDP was 37.9% in 2014, 38% of the workforce was employed in it. The most important industrial sectors are mechanical engineering and vehicle construction, metallurgy (ore smelting), the food industry, power generation and construction. Important growth industries are information and communication technology as well as electronics and electrical engineering; overall, the proportion of technology-intensive products also with export, very high. Central Bohemia, along with Prague, is the most important industrial area. According to allcountrylist, the metallurgical industry is mainly located in the Ostrava and Karviná coalfields, as well as in Kladno, Beroun and Chomutov. The North Moravian old industrial region around Ostrava has serious structural problems (industrial monostructure, backlog of modernization, poor training structure, high unemployment). Main locations of the engineering and automotive industries are Prague, Brno, Plzen, Ostrava further, Zd’ar nad Sazavou, Hradec Kralove (Hradec Kralove), Pardubice, Zlín. The main sites of the chemical industry are on the same Koniggratz about Kolín (oil refinery), Pardubice and Neratovice (petrochemicals), Štětí, Lovosice to Ustí nad Labem. Prague is the center of the pharmaceutical industry. The textile industry, especially in the north and northeast of Bohemia, has lost its former importance. The glass and ceramic industry is concentrated around Teplice, Karlsbad, Jablonec nad Nisou and Nový Bor. Bohemian musical instrument making developed in Kraslice, Luby (north of Eger) and Krnov. The Czech breweries in Pilsen, České Budějovice and Prague are world famous.
The Czech Republic has a dense network of railways (around 9,460 km) and roads (around 130,700 km, including 740 km of motorways). The main lines of the railway network run in a north-south direction. Central and Northern Bohemia have the densest road network. Motorways are being expanded, the main traffic axes run from the north-west (Saxony) and west (Bavaria) via Prague to Brno and on to Bratislava and Budapest with further branches from Prague and Brno. The most important traffic junction is Prague. The inland waterways (664 km) play an important role in the movement of goods abroad. Largest inland ports are Prague, U stí nad Labem and Decin. Elbe and Oder establish the connection with the seaports of Hamburg (Germany) and Stettin (Poland), where the Czech Republic has free port rights. The landlocked country maintains its own merchant fleet in these ports. In addition to the largest international airport in Prague, there are important airports in Karlovy Vary, Brno and Ostrava.