As a Northern European country, Finland is part of the so-called Scandinavian countries and is also known as the “country of a thousand lakes”. With an area of 338 145 km 2 , Finland borders Norway to the north; Sweden to the northwest; and Russia to the east; being bathed by the Gulf of Finland to the south and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west.
The main cities are Helsinki, the capital, with 590 600 residents (2004), Espoo (234 700 inhab.), Tampere (203 200 inhab.), Vantaa (192 500 inhab.), Turku (179 600 inhab.) And Oulu (126,500 inhab.).
Finland is a country of generally flat relief, with an increase in altitude from south to north. It is in the mountainous regions of Northwest Finland, close to the borders with Sweden and Norway, that the highest point in the country, Mount Haltia, is found, at 1328 meters. The landscape of this country is characterized by extensive forests, countless lakes (close to 55,000) and rivers and also by the presence of vast swampy areas that attest to the presence of an old glacier cover.
The Finnish climate is characterized by a large annual thermal amplitude, especially in the North, where the temperature in winter reaches -30 ºC, while in summer there is a maximum of 27 ºC (it should be noted that, during the summer, from May to July, in the North, latitude is 66º 33 ‘N or more, there is no night, a phenomenon known as the midnight sun). In these same regions during the winter the sun remains below the horizon for 51 days, which originates the polar night. As for the levels of precipitation, these have a low incidence, being limited to 600 mm per year. There is also a geographic detail: the Finnish coast of the Gulf of Bothnia grows 9 mm annually, due to the decompression of the frozen sheets over that region.
The Finnish economy is liberal, giving great freedoms to the private sector, although the State has control over transport and energy companies. With the economic development observed since the Second World War (especially since the 1960s), agriculture has gradually lost importance in the Finnish economy, mainly as a source of employment. On the other hand, forestry has an important economic performance due to the extensive area occupied by forests (about 3/4 of the territory).
The industrial sector has been occupying since the 60s the economic space previously filled by the primary sector. This is due to the great development observed, not only in industries related to the construction and treatment of chemical and forestry products (mainly cellulose), but also in terms of the production of heavy machinery. Also noteworthy is the good situation of the textile industry (mainly the one dedicated to the manufacture of fox fur products) and the porcelain industry, the latter located in the Helsinki area. This global development has influenced the financial sector in the same way, especially since the opening of this sector to foreign banking, a fact that is part of a framework in which transactions with other markets are of fundamental importance to keep the country’s economy in good health.
Environmental indicator: the value of carbon dioxide emissions, per capita (metric tons, 1999), is 11.3.
The Finnish population was, in 2006, 5,231,372 residents, which corresponds to a population density of 15.5 inhab./km 2 . The birth and death rates are, respectively, 10.45% o and 9.86% o . Average life expectancy is 78.5 years. The value of the Human Development Index (HDI) is 0.930 and the value of the Gender-adjusted Development Index (IDG) is 0.928 (2001). In religious terms, Evangelical Lutherans are in the majority, with 86% of the population. The official languages are Finnish and Swedish, spoken by 93% and 6% of the population, respectively.
Art and Culture
Finnish culture is strongly marked by a single work: Calévala , an epic work compiled in the 19th century by the sage Elias Lönnrot, through ancient songs, poems and tales from Finland. The Calévala has influenced theater, music, opera, literature and the arts different, due to the great national spirit that pervades and early enthused Finns.
- Countryaah: provides country profile of Finland, including its state flag, official language, population rankings, land area, history overview, summary of economy and culture as well as map of Finland.
- Abbreviationfinder: Comprehensive list of all abbreviations associated with Finland. Sorted by popularity. Also offers the 2-letter and 3-letter acronyms for what is the abbreviation for Finland.
Bank of Finland
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