Georgian Arts and Music

Georgian art

Georgian art, the art on the territory of Georgia. The first evidence on Georgian territory has existed since the 5th and 4th centuries. Millennium BC BC (Paleolithic settlements); from the 2nd / 1st Century BC BC Megalithic buildings and Kurgan tombs. Medieval architecture developed in the 1st half of the 4th century (fortifications, city ensembles, palace and bridge structures) and was shaped by early Christian-Byzantine art. In the sacred building, the basilica prevailed, mostly with rich ornamental decoration (Basilica of Bolnisi, 478/93). In the 6th / 7th Century dominated central domes and the shape of the Tetrakonchos (Jvari church near Mtskheta, churches in Ateni, Martvili, Zromi, etc.). In the 9th / 10th In the 19th century, the construction of cities (Tbilisi, Kutaisi), fortresses (Chertwisi, Tmogwi), large monastery ensembles (Vardsia, Ikalto, David Gareja, Bethania), churches (Kumurdo, Chachuli, Oshki) and palaces (Geguti) gained in importance. The three main structures of Georgian architecture were built in the 11th century: the Sveti Tskhoveli Cathedral in Mtskheta (1010/29), the Bagrat Cathedral in Kutaisi (1003; destroyed in 1691) and the Cathedral in Alaverdi (early 11th century). The heyday of Georgian architecture ended with the Mongol invasion in the 13th century.

In the visual arts, according to itypeauto, architecture-related relief sculpture, mosaic art, wall painting and toreutics have developed since the 5th century. The oldest surviving miniature painting works come from the 9th / 10th centuries. Century (Gospels of Adische and Dschrutscha). In the 16./18. Illustrated secular manuscripts appeared in the 19th century. In the 17th century, the portrait developed in connection with wall painting. In the 18th century, with the introduction of book printing, Georgian art of modern times began, partly strongly influenced by Russian art and European trends.

After the annexation to Russia in 1801, influences of Russian classicism (bell tower of the Zion Cathedral in Tbilisi, 1812), historicism and European modernism had an impact on the architecture. Notable buildings in Tbilisi include the Paliaschwili Opera House (1880–96, by the architect of German-Russian origin Victor Sreter, * 1839, † 1901) and the Hotel Tbilisi (1915, by Gavriil Ter-Mikelov, * 1874, † 1949). General development plans were drawn up under Soviet rule (including for Tbilisi, Kutaisi, Batumi). Representing the international style i.a. in Tbilisi the building of the State Philharmonic (1959–64) and the Hotel Iveria (1967). The hotel and commercial building on Dawid-Agmaschenebeli-Prospekt 75 (1998) shows elements of Russian constructivism and deconstructivism. In parallel, the fine arts developed; among the numerous artists of the 19th and early 20th centuries, v. a. David Kakabadze (* 1889, † 1952), Jakov Nikoladze (* 1876, † 1951), N. Pirosmanaschwili and the Armenian Hakop Hovnathanian (* 1806, † 1881). In Moscow were among others. W. W. Mayakovsky and Dmitri Ardad’evic Nalbandjan (* 1906, † 1993). Traditionally, the applied arts took a leading position. A non-conformist post-avant-garde oriented towards Western Europe has developed since the 1970s with Iliko Zautashwili (* 1952), Gia Edzgveradze (* 1953) and others. As in other post-communist countries, the retro avant-garde has been appropriating international art movements since 1991. She analyzes v. a. in photography and media art ideological, cultural and political conflicts from past and present as well as one’s own position in a global society of values. Important representatives are Edzgveradze, Zurab Tereteli (* 1934), Koka Ramischwili (* 1956), Giorgi Alexi-Meskhiswili (* 1941) who worked in New York, Guia Rigvava (* 1956) who worked in Germany and Igor Makarevic (* 1943) who worked in Moscow.

Georgian music

Georgian music. The evidence of Georgian music goes back to the 15th century BC. BC back. In addition to polyphonic, predominantly three-part folk music, which the Georgians developed a thousand years ago, one- and two-part songs are also common. Folk instruments include the lute-like Panduri and Tschonguri, the string instruments Kemantsche and Tschuniri, also Soinari (flute), Stwiri (bagpipes) and various percussion instruments. Georgian church music originated in the 4th century. Spiritual chants have been handed down in a separate new notation from the 10th century. After the annexation of Georgia by Russia in the 19th century, the contacts between Georgian music and European music increased. Georgian national art music developed rapidly from the late 19th century. Sachari Paliaschwili (* 1871, † 1933), who mainly created operas. Dimitri Arakishvili (* 1873, † 1953) wrote the first symphonic works. S. Sulkhanishvili composed choral music. The most important Georgian composers of the 20th century include Grigori Kiladze (* 1902, † 1962), Andrei Balantschiwadze (* 1906, † 1992), Rewas Gabitschwadze (* 1913, † 1999), Alexei Matschawariani (* 1913, † 1995), Dawid Toradze (* 1922, † 1983), Otar Taktakishvili (* 1924, † 1989), Sulchan Zinzadze (* 1925, † 1991), Sulchan Nassidze (* 1927, † 1996) and Giya Kancheli (* 1935).

Sukhumi

Sukhumi , Russian Sukhum, Sukhumi, Abkhazian Aku, Akua, capital of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia within Georgia, on the coast of the Black Sea, extends over 23 km on the Sukhumi Bay south of the Greater Caucasus, (2019) 65 400 residents.

Climatic and balneological health resort (several mineral springs and thermal baths, sulfur baths), seaside resort, cultural and economic center of the Abkhazians; University (founded in 1979), college for subtropical plant cultivation, institute for primate research and monkey reserve, Abkhazian museum, Gulia museum (for the Abkhazian poet Dmitri Gulia, * 1874, † 1960), botanical garden (subtropical flora), philharmonic, theater; Food and luxury food industry (canned fruit). Formerly one of the most important tourist centers of the Soviet Union, Sukhumi lost many of its economic functions after the Abkhaz-Georgian war 1992-94, but tourism (especially from Russia) is still important; Sea port, railway connection to Sochi (Russia) and Tbilisi (currently suspended).

Nearby was the one in the 6th century BC. The trading center of Dioskurias founded by the Greeks from Miletus in the 1st century BC. Was conquered by the Romans and fell into disrepair. In the 1st century AD the Romans built a fortress on the site of today’s Sukhumi, around which the city of Sebastopolis developed, which became Byzantine at the beginning of the 6th century and had a Genoese trading post from the 12th century. Conquered by the Turks in the 16th century, fortified in 1724 and renamed Sukhum-Kale, Sukhumi and Abkhazia fell to the Russian Empire in 1810. In March 1921 it became the capital of Abkhazia. Sukhumi suffered severe damage in the Georgian-Abkhaz war of 1992/93.

Georgian Arts and Music