With a population of around 1.37 billion, India is the second most populous country in the world after China. About 72 percent of the population are Indo-Aryans, 25 percent are Dravids, who live mainly in southern India. Three percent are other ethnic groups.
The number of illegally immigrated Bangladeshis is estimated at up to 20 million. The 100,000 or so exiled Tibetans who have fled their homeland since the Chinese occupation of Tibet in the 1950s are officially recognized as refugees. In addition, around 60,000 Tamil refugees from Sri Lanka live on Indian territory.
About 780 languages are spoken in India. In addition to the two national official languages Hindi and English, the Indian constitution recognizes 21 languages. In northern India, Hindi is the predominant mother tongue or second language. In the south, on the other hand, it is easier to get by with English.
Hindi language courses
Among the multitude of language courses, I recommend multimedia language courses because you learn very quickly with this method. The link below provides you with a professional language course with which you can learn Hindi quickly and easily:
- Hindi language course
No other country in the world has such a great religious diversity. The following are the largest religious communities in India: Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Christianity, Islam, Sikhism.
Indian culture has shaped the entire area of South Asia and Southeast Asia and includes, among other things, Indian cuisine, Indian clothing, Indian handicrafts, Indian music, Indian dance (Bhangra) and Indian philosophy.
In Indian film there is a rich tradition of auteur cinema in addition to large-scale commercial productions (Bollywood / Kollywood). Because of the many languages there is not “the” Indian literature but a multitude of Indian literatures.
Approximately 120 million Indian households currently have a television. In total there should now be over 400 TV channels. According to the Broadcasting Authority of India, the state radio “All India Radio”, which broadcasts on VHF, reaches around 20% of Indian listeners.
The Internet is one of the major growth sectors in the media sector. Statistics assume there are over 60 million Internet users (a rapidly growing number).
Print media are plentiful and, in many cases, of high quality. In total there are over 70,000 registered newspapers and magazines with a total circulation of 185 million. The Indian press is largely owned by family businesses and some have also been opened to foreign investment. Publications that deal with news and current affairs can be up to 26% in foreign hands, scientific or specialist publications up to 100%.
In India there is compulsory schooling from 6 to 14 years of age. Attending public schools is free. The school system comprises four main levels: the five-year elementary school is followed by the middle school from the sixth to eighth grade, then the higher schools and finally the colleges and universities.
Secondary schools and higher education institutions are usually only available in cities. Since the education system is largely incumbent on the states, there are correspondingly large regional differences. India has 380 universities.
The government estimates the illiteracy rate at 35%. One problem is the disadvantage of girls, whose school enrollment rate is lower than that of boys. At higher educational institutions, the proportion of women is generally significantly lower than that of men. Another major weak point is the hitherto underdeveloped vocational school system.
Climate and Weather
The Indian climate is determined by different climatic zones, which are very different from each other. They only have the monsoon in common:
- Tropical dry climate in Central India, from the northwest to the southern tip
- Summer humid tropical climate to tropical rainy climate on the western coastal strip
- Summer humid tropical climate in the northeast to the east
India has three seasons: summer, monsoon season and winter. Visit printerhall for India Tour Plan.
The winter monsoon brings enough rainfall only in the southeast. In north and central India there is a subtropical continental climate, in the south and on the coasts the climate is tropical.
There are strong temperature fluctuations in the different seasons. In the northern lowlands it is 10-15 ° Celsius from December to January and 40-50 ° Celsius from April to June. The Thar desert in the state of Rajasthan has constantly over 45 ° Celsius in summer. In the south, the climate is hot all year round.
Best travel times
- Himalayan region: April to June
- Central India: November to April
- South India: November to April
India – climate
- Spring: March to May.
- Summer: June to August
- Autumn: Sep. until Nov
- Winter: Dec. to Feb.
Due to the size of the country and different climatic conditions, India has a great variety of landscapes. The flora ranges from high mountain vegetation in the Himalayas to tropical rainforests in the south. One fifth of the country is still forested.
Vegetation in Northern India
The eastern part of the Himalayas is covered with rain and damp forests, which remain green all year round. The western part is a little lighter because it is drier there.
Vegetation in the West Indies
Here you can mainly find deciduous trees such as chestnuts and oaks. The rhododendrons are particularly typical of this area. The high valleys of Ladakh consist mainly of desert-like steppe landscapes. In the higher mountain areas you can find conifers such as pines and cedars.
Vegetation in South India
Mainly covered with tropical forests, it is home to many herbs such as ginger, cinnamon, pepper and cardamom. This region is also known for sandalwood trees and coconut palms. In the Western Ghats, which are very fertile due to the high amount of precipitation and covered with tropical rainforest, you can find different types of ferns and orchids in the most varied of shapes and colors.
Neem trees, which are used for medicinal purposes, are only found in the very dry areas of India, such as the central Deccan or Rajasthan. Mangrove forests are mainly found on the east coast, with the largest mangrove area in India being in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta.
The sal is a typical tree species for the northern part of India, while the teak tree can be found mainly in the western and central Deccan highlands.
Animals, animal species
It is estimated that around 350 mammal, 1,200 bird, 400 reptile and 200 amphibian species live in India, as well as more than 2,500 fish species in the waters.
Mention should be made of a large population of rhinos, wild buffalo, elephants, big cats such as leopards, tigers or lions, as well as various antelope species. The rare snow leopard can be found in the Himalayas. Monkeys can be found in many parts of the country.