Indonesia is a country of Southeast Asia. The Republic of Indonesia consists of an archipelago with 13 677 islands (of which 6000 are not inhabited), with a total area of 1 919 440 km 2 . It lies between the Pacific Ocean, the Celebes Sea, the Sulu Sea and the South China Sea, to the north, the Indian Ocean, to the south and west, and the Arafura Sea and Papua New Guinea to the east. . Indonesia is the largest archipelago in the world and the fourth country in number of residents. The main cities are Jakarta, the capital, with 8 987 800 residents (2004), Surabaya (3,092,400 residents) and Bandung (2,781,800 residents).
The islands of Indonesia, which stretch in a curve over 5000 km of ocean, are of volcanic origin, constituting an extension of the Asian continent. It has over 200 active volcanoes. The relief of the Indonesian islands is mountainous, being subject to great erosion caused by monsoon rains that drag large amounts of sediment. This fact contributes to the growth of coastal plains.
The climate, in the majority of the archipelago, is equatorial and humid tropical. Its location at low latitude, insularity and the wind regime give rise to a hot and humid climate throughout the year in most of the islands.
The Indonesian economy is essentially based on agricultural, mining and industrial activities. The agricultural sector produces rice, corn, cassava, sweet potatoes, tobacco, tea and coffee. Like India, agriculture was in trouble after the first successes of the Green Revolution. Associated with this sector is also forestry, an activity that produces natural rubber and exotic woods. On the other hand, mining activity has seen its importance increase from day to day, mainly fueled by the increase in oil and natural gas exploration. However, other ores are mined, such as nickel, bauxite, gold and copper.
As for the industrial sector, which has been making strides since the mid-1980s to become the main Indonesian sector, it is part of a policy of importing raw materials for further processing and export. In this way, the industries related to chemicals, electronic components, cement, tires, paper and textiles stand out. In summary, the economy of this country is in the development stage, benefiting from its privileged position within international institutions such as ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations), ESCAP (Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific) ) and OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries). Indonesia’s main trading partners are Japan, the United States of America, Singapore and Germany.
Environmental indicator: the value of carbon dioxide emissions, per capita (metric tons, 1999), is 1.2.
The population is estimated at 245 452 739 residents (2006), estimated to be 301 million in 2025. The birth and death rates are respectively 20.34% of the and 6.25% a . Average life expectancy is 69.87 years. The value of the Human Development Index (HDI) is 0.682 and the value of the Gender-adjusted Development Index (IDG) is 0.677 (2001).
As for the ethnolinguistic composition, the Javanese are the largest group with 39% of the population, followed by the Sondeses (16%), the Malays (12%) and the Madureses (4%). In terms of religion, 87% of the population follows Islam, with Christianity at 10%, Hinduism at 2% and Buddhism at 1%. Although there are close to 250 languages and dialects used by more than 300 ethnic groups, Indonesia’s official language is Bahasa, which is an evolution of the Malay dialect.
- Countryaah: provides country profile of Indonesia, including its state flag, official language, population rankings, land area, history overview, summary of economy and culture as well as map of Indonesia.
- Abbreviationfinder: Comprehensive list of all abbreviations associated with Indonesia. Sorted by popularity. Also offers the 2-letter and 3-letter acronyms for what is the abbreviation for Indonesia.
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