Island state of Southeast Asia. With its 237,641,326 residents at the 2010 census, increasing, according to an UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs) which, for 2014, reports 252,812,245 residents, Indonesia it is one of the most populated countries in the world, although the distribution of the population continues to be unequal in the various islands that compose it. The rate of population variation, which has been steadily decreasing since the 1980s, reached 1.4% per year in the five-year period 2005-10 and 1.2% per year in the five-year period 2010-15. Infant mortality has also significantly decreased: just think that, while in 1991 there were 68 deaths of children out of 1000 live births, in 2012 the value dropped to 32 and in 2013 to 24.5. Also relevant is the decrease in the percentage of children under the age of five underweight due to malnutrition (although the data remains worrying): it went from 31% in 1989 to 17.9% in 2010. The UNDP (United Nations Development Program) found that, thanks to the measures taken over the last three decades, Indonesians are living longer, have greater access to medical care, have a better education system and more opportunities to increase their income.. The data of Human development report 2014 emphasize the progress that the country recorded in human development between 1980 and 2013. Despite the considerable increase in the relative human development index (HDI) in that time interval (+ 45.3%), in 2013 the value was however, it stood at 0.684, bringing the country back into the States with medium-class HDI (in 108th place out of 187, worldwide). The improvements in the components of the indicator, again in the period 1980-2013, are however the result of the increase in life expectancy at birth (increased by 12.2 years), the average years of schooling (by 4.4) and of education expected (increased by 4). Nonetheless, considering multidimensional poverty – measured by calculating deprivation in education, health and living standards -, as of 2012 on the 5th, 9% of the population was ‘multidimensionally poor’ and 8.1% approached this type of poverty. Looking instead at the general figure calculated by the UNDP on the basis of the national poverty threshold, the value was even higher: in 2013, 11.37% of Indonesians lived below the aforementioned threshold (a figure in any case decreasing, although slight, compared to 11.66% recorded in 2012). In any case, even looking at the percentage of the population in conditions of poverty, the country presents considerable unevenness: according to the data of the Central statistics agency of 2013, this value ranges from 3.55% in Jakarta to 31.1% in Papua. the value was even higher: in 2013, 11.37% of Indonesians lived below the aforementioned threshold (a figure in any case decreasing, albeit slightly, compared to the 11.66% recorded in 2012). In any case, even looking at the percentage of the population in conditions of poverty, the country presents considerable unevenness: according to the data of the Central statistics agency of 2013, this value ranges from 3.55% in Jakarta to 31.1% in Papua. the value was even higher: in 2013, 11.37% of Indonesians lived below the aforementioned threshold (a figure in any case decreasing, albeit slightly, compared to the 11.66% recorded in 2012). In any case, even looking at the percentage of the population in conditions of poverty, the country presents considerable unevenness: according to the data of the Central statistics agency of 2013, this value ranges from 3.55% in Jakarta to 31.1% in Papua.
These disparities emphasize not only the persistence of inequalities, but also the greater vulnerability of the poor and near-poor to economic and financial crises and environmental disasters. Compared to the latter, after the tsunami of 2004 (which killed more than 220,000 people in Indonesia) and other natural disasters, the Indonesian government created the National agency for disaster management (BNPB, Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana), an institution aimed precisely at managing environmental disasters, which is acquiring great expertise in preparing to face extreme events. Among the most relevant environmental issues, climate change and deforestation have assumed great importance, so much so that the Indonesian government has taken important steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and deforestation. Equally relevant is the country’s commitment to pursuing the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
Economic conditions. – The economy has grown significantly since 2010. During the global financial crisis, the country overtook its regional neighbors and, along with China and India, was one of three G20 members to experience economic growth despite the complex economic situation. Indonesia is a growing economic powerhouse, both within the G20 and ASEAN (Association of South-East Asian Nations), in particular thanks to its mediating role in regional conflicts. The country’s international profile was also enhanced by the role it assumed, in 2012, in the policies for the post-2015 agenda and development cooperation on a global scale. In terms of macroeconomic stability, the government managed to meet many of its budgetary targets, including a significant decline in the debt-to-GDP ratio (from 61% in 2003 to 26% in 2013). Indonesia recorded an increase in GDP of over 6% on average in the period 2009-14 (IMF, World economic outlook, October 2014). The country has also formulated a long-term development plan (2005-25) which is, in turn, divided into 5 medium-term plans, each with different development priorities. The plan covering the period 2009-14 focused on three objectives: the promotion of the quality of human resources, the development of science and technology, the strengthening of competitiveness. For Indonesia 2011, please check internetsailors.com.
Although economic growth and social progress have been remarkable, the Indonesia it has to face numerous unresolved issues, which translate into as many critical issues: poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, an excessively complex regulatory framework and, last but not least, the unequal distribution of resources among the regions. The poorest areas, in Indonesia eastern, in the first decade of the new millennium were in line with the national average. The regions that showed the best performances economic ones are instead those most connected to the global economy: in this sense the capital Jakarta has distinguished itself for a greater growth than that recorded in the rest of the country. However, the Indonesian government has to deal with growing conflicts with workers. According to data from the World Bank (WB), in fact, employment growth has been slower than that of the population and public services are still inadequate. The same BM, in 2014, signaled that the forecasts of economic growth were revised downwards and the prices of raw materials continued to weaken, especially that of crude oil. The international body, while acknowledging the progressive improvement in the development conditions mentioned above, considers the measures taken insufficient, also questioning the achievement of the MDGs. In 2013, the country still recorded 228 deaths per 100,000 live births (a very high value compared to 105 to be achieved by 2015) and access to better health facilities reserved for only 68% of the population (a value very far from 86 % planned).