Ireland is a country of Western Europe. The Republic of Ireland, also known as Eire , occupies most of the island of Ireland. The country is bathed by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Celtic Sea to the south, and the Irish Sea to the east, with the only land border being established in the northeast with Northern Ireland (part of the United Kingdom). Ireland covers an area of 70 280 km 2 . The capital is Dublin, with a population of 1 027 900 residents (2004), and other important cities are Cork (195 400 inhab.), Limerick (85 700 inhab.) And Galway (68 600 inhab.).
The lowlands characterize the relief of Ireland and occupy the entire North and Center of the country, being only interrupted by small hills whose altitudes do not exceed 120 meters. The entire territory is, however, surrounded by coastal mountain ranges, with special development in the South, where the highest point in Ireland is found, Mount Carrantuohill, with 1040 meters of altitude.
The climate is maritime temperate. One of the characteristics of Ireland’s climate is the high humidity throughout the year, with abundant rainfall, which contributes to the green landscape for which Ireland is famous.
The characteristics of the Irish economy have come very close to those found in the most prosperous economies of Western European countries, namely the European Union. The country’s main activities are services, industry and agriculture. Thanks to good management of EU funds, the Irish economy is now considered a small “Celtic tiger” or “little European dragon”. Numerous multinational firms have established themselves in Ireland thanks to the competitive advantages offered by this country. The agricultural sector remains fundamentally traditional. Although only 1/8 of the land is arable, it is extremely fertile and is mainly used for the production of cereals, beets and potatoes. On the other hand, thanks to the humid climate, Ireland benefits from extensive areas covered with pastures that sustain, throughout the year, livestock raising, responsible for the majority of income in the primary sector. As for the secondary sector, its success is due to the action that the Industrial Development Authority has taken in recent decades, through the creation of various economic incentives that aim, not only to develop and increase the competitiveness of national industries, but also to attract foreign industries. Within this framework, the chemical, food, textile, metallurgical and mining industries can be highlighted. Without having significant mineral resources, Ireland has the largest deposits of lead and zinc in Europe, with oil and natural gas extraction still to be recorded, both of which exist in small quantities. Finally, it is important to highlight the economic importance of tourism, which accounts for a large part of national income. The natural characteristics of the island and its residents, as well as the excellent reception infrastructures, contribute to the success of this activity. Ireland’s main trading partners are the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Germany and France.
Environmental indicator: the value of carbon dioxide emissions, per capita (metric tons, 1999), is 10.8.
The population was, in 2006, 4 062 235 residents, which is equivalent to a population density of 57.14 inhab./km 2 . The birth and death rates are, respectively, 14.45% o and 7.82% o . Average life expectancy is 77.73 years. The value of the Human Development Index (HDI) is 0.930 and the value of the Gender-adjusted Development Index (IDG) is 0.923 (2001). It is estimated that, in 2025, the population will be 4 438 000 residents. In terms of religion, Catholicism accounts for 92% of the population, while the Anglican Church of Ireland represents 2%. The official languages are English and Gaelic.
Art and Culture
Although Ireland has been populated throughout history by Normans, English, Scots and Norwegians, it is in the Celtic people that the Irish have their main roots, as can be seen by the different cultural expressions, particularly in the field of music. However, although Gaelic (Irish) is the first official language, it is through English that Irish literature has marked its place in the Anglo-Saxon cultural world, greatly influencing it. In this regard, names like Jonathan Swift, Edmund Burke, Oscar Wilde, George Bernard Shaw and Samuel Beckett stand out.
- Countryaah: provides country profile of Ireland, including its state flag, official language, population rankings, land area, history overview, summary of economy and culture as well as map of Ireland.
- Abbreviationfinder: Comprehensive list of all abbreviations associated with Ireland. Sorted by popularity. Also offers the 2-letter and 3-letter acronyms for what is the abbreviation for Ireland.
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