Jordan is a southwest Asian country. Located in the Middle East, it covers an area of 92 300 km 2 . It is bordered by Syria to the north, Iraq to the northeast, Saudi Arabia to the south and southeast, and Israel to the west. It has a coastline of 19 km, in the Gulf of Aqaba. The most important cities are Amman, the capital, with a population of 1 308 000 residents (2004), Az-Zarqa (509 800 inhab.), Irbid (298 800 inhab.), Az-Salt (76 000 inhab.), Ar-Rusayfah (208 900 inhab.) And Al-Mafraq (61 300 inhab.).
The country has an arid climate and, therefore, the lack of water represents a major problem. Winter is cool and summer is very hot. Little rainfall occurs mainly in winter.
Only 1/10 of the soil is arable and, for this reason, most of the food consumed is imported. The dominant crops are tomato, orange, tangerine, melon, banana, olive, wheat, barley, lemon, lime, eggplant, cucumber and cauliflower, obtained using irrigation. . Only mineral phosphate and potassium are extracted. The industry covers refined petroleum, chemicals, mineral products, tobacco, food products, basic metal products, beverages, paper products, textiles, furniture and plastic products. The most important energy resource for the country is oil. Exports are to India, Saudi Arabia and Iraq and include chemical fertilizers, potassium, vegetables, fruits, pharmaceuticals and textiles. The imported products are fuels, machinery, transport equipment, iron, steel and clothing. The exporting countries are Iraq, the USA, Germany and Japan.
Environmental indicator: the value of carbon dioxide emissions, per capita (metric tons, 1999), is 3.1.
The country’s population is estimated at 5 906 760 residents (2006), which corresponds to a density of approximately 62.4 inhab./km2. The birth and death rates are respectively 21.25% and 2.65%. Average life expectancy is 78.4 years. The value of the Human Development Index (HDI) is 0.743 and the value of the Gender-adjusted Development Index (IDG) is 0.729 (2001). It is estimated that, in 2025, the population will be 8 652 000 residents. Arabs make up 99% of Jordan’s population. The majority religion is Muslim. The official language is Arabic.
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Central Bank of Jordan
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