Amman has been the capital of Jordan since 1921. People began to settle here since ancient times, BC the city was the capital of the Ammonite kingdom and was called Rabbat-Ammon. Later, the Greco-Roman city of Philadelphia, one of the ten cities of the Decapolis, was located here.
According to ITYPEMBA, Amman was formed on several hills. Now its main attractions are located at the foot of the four hills in the Lower City, and hotels, bars, restaurants and shops on the hills themselves. It is worth starting a tour of the city from the foot of the hill “Fortress Mountain”, it was here that the ancient Rabbat-Ammon was located. In this place, the remains of the fortress walls, the columns of the Byzantine church of the 6th century and the ruins of the Roman temple of Hercules have been preserved. 2nd century, represented by colonnades. The Jordan Archaeological Museum is also located here, which contains a collection of finds from prehistoric times to the 15th century. At the “Fortress Mountain” there is a Roman amphitheater, which is the best preserved building from the ancient city of Philadelphia (2nd century AD). The amphitheater protrudes into the northern slope of the hill and the seats for most of the day are in the shade. Now it is in excellent condition and is designed for 6,000 spectators. Today it is used for cultural and sporting events. There are two museums near the amphitheater – the Jordanian Folklore Museum, which tells about the culture and life of the local population, and the Jordanian Museum of Folk Traditions, which displays traditional Jordanian costumes and jewelry. Nearby is the ancient Odeon, which was built around the same time as the Roman amphitheater. It accommodates 5,000 spectators, and today music concerts are given here. It is also worth seeing the fountain of the times of Philadelphia – Nymphaeum. It was built in the 2nd century AD. In the center of New Amman stands the city’s largest mosque, the King Abdullah Mosque. It was built in the Ottoman style in 1924 on the site of an ancient mosque. The Museum of Islam is also open here. Between the Mosque and the “Fortress Hill” is located the area of the eastern markets Sug.
From Amman you can go on excursions to the cities of Salt, Jerash, Irbid, Pella, Umm al-Jimal, as well as drive along the Royal Highway and see Madaba, near which stands Mount Nebo, Mukavir, Wadi Mujib, Kerak, Shaubek fortress and Petra.
To the north of Amman beyond the mountainous region of Gilead is the city of Jerash. The remains of the ancient Greco-Roman city of Gerasa were excavated here. – the largest city of the Decapolis. Geras was destroyed by an earthquake and buried under a layer of rubble. It was excavated in 1920 and it turned out that most of the structures remained in good condition. Now the entrance to this territory is paid. Of the sights, one can single out the majestic three-vaulted Arc de Triomphe, the Hippodrome, which was the smallest in the Roman Empire (its length is 245 m and its width is 52 m), the Oval Square, surrounded by 56 columns, from which a 600-meter road departs, also surrounded by columns, the largest building of the ancient city – the Temple of Artemis, theaters, baths and the Roman bridge. Every year in July, a colorful festival with performances is held here, and in the Archaeological Museum, you can learn about the history of this region.
West of Jerash worth a visit Ajlun Castle. It was built in the 12th century by the Arabs. The castle stands on a hill overlooking three roads into the Jordanian valley, it was previously intended to protect trade routes from Syria, as well as to protect against attacks by the crusaders. The castle was partially destroyed during an earthquake.
The ancient city of Petra is the most important attraction on the Royal Highway and one of the most popular in Jordan. This is the capital of the ancient Arab state – the Nabatean kingdom, which was built in the 6th-5th centuries BC. It is located in a deep canyon, the width of which varies from 5 to 200 m, and is only accessible through a narrow crevice in the rock. Petra has been included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Entrance to the city is paid.
All the buildings of Petra are carved from the rocks. The most impressive of them is Al-Khazna (Treasury). Once there was a royal tomb here, and it got its name because of the legend that pirates hid their treasures here. The Amphitheater is interesting, capable of accommodating 8 thousand spectators. After the Amphitheater, the main part of the city begins, which covers an area of about 3 square meters. km. Here you can see the royal tombs, a long street surrounded by columns, a triumphal arch, the Temple of the Winged Lions, a Byzantine church that is full of mosaics, covering a total of 70 square meters. m.
Some of the sights of Petra are located at high altitudes, which are difficult to reach. Among them – the Monastery and a place for sacrifices with altars. In Petra there are two archaeological museums, which contain collections of items that are identified with biblical chronicles.