Russia History - the Parliamentary Republic and the Chechen Question

Russia regained the status of a parliamentary republic following the failed Moscow coup in August 1991, under the leadership of Boris N. Elcin, president elected by parliament since 1990 (and confirmed by popular suffrage in June 1991). Proposed as heir of the USSR in matters of supranational interest and as promoter of the foundation of the CIS (21 December 1991), it assumed the official name of the Russian Federation (or Russia) on 31 March 1992, with the ratification of a founding treaty signed by 14 of the 16 autonomous republics (absent the Tatar Republic and Chechen-Ingushetia, who claimed independence). Inherited the USSR’s place in the UN Security Council, in 1992 he assumed responsibility for the old state’s foreign debt and control of the bulk of the armed forces, later resolving the disputes with Ukraine regarding the fleet after lengthy negotiations. of the Black Sea. In the meantime, to the positive results obtained in foreign policy, with the signing of a new START agreement(on long-range nuclear warheads) and with the granting of a new federal treaty to mitigate separatist pressures, however, there was a deterioration of the internal situation and the worsening of economic conditions, with the fragmentation of the political framework and the resurgence of groupings left and right extremists. The industrial-military lobby benefited from this situation, favoring a more gradual introduction of economic reforms and a consolidation of ties with the CIS, rather than with Western Europe. Furthermore, the pressure of the moderates determined the non-reconfirmation of the interim prime minister ET Gajdar and his replacement (December 1992) with VS Černomyrdin, representative of the interests of large state industry.

For some time dormant, in 1993 the conflict between Elcin and Parliament became irremediable. After a first tug-of-war apparently resolved in April with the approval of a referendum in favor of the president, the conflict rekindled over the hypothesis of a new Constitution and culminated in the presidential decree for the dissolution of Parliament and the calling of new ones. elections (21 September). The majority of the deputies, led by AV Ruckoj and RI Chasbulatov, barricaded themselves in the seat of Parliament. According to aceinland, an insurrectional attempt followed which eventually induced Elcin to order (4 October) the bombing of the “White House”, bending the resistance of the rebels, an unknown number of whom were killed. Supported by all Western diplomacy, the drastic choice of the Russian president ended up weakening him internally by strengthening the role of the military leaders. The subsequent elections of 12 December showed a certain decline in Elcin’s popularity: just over 50% of the voters voted in the referendum on the new Constitution and of these only 58% expressed their consent. Even less positive was the result for the election of the new Parliament, where the right-wing ultranationalist V. Žirinovskij had a good success. In foreign policy, the continuation of the disarmament talks led to the Moscow agreement of January 13, 1994 between Elcin, the US president The subsequent elections of 12 December showed a certain decline in Elcin’s popularity: just over 50% of the voters voted in the referendum on the new Constitution and of these only 58% expressed their consent. Even less positive was the result for the election of the new Parliament, where the right-wing ultranationalist V. Žirinovskij had a good success. In foreign policy, the continuation of the disarmament talks led to the Moscow agreement of January 13, 1994 between Elcin, the US president The subsequent elections of 12 December showed a certain decline in Elcin’s popularity: just over 50% of the voters voted in the referendum on the new Constitution and of these only 58% expressed their consent.

Even less positive was the result for the election of the new Parliament, where the right-wing ultranationalist V. Žirinovskij had a good success. In foreign policy, the continuation of the disarmament talks led to the Moscow agreement of January 13, 1994 between Elcin, the US president right-wing ultranationalist V. Žirinovskij had a good success. In foreign policy, the continuation of the disarmament talks led to the Moscow agreement of January 13, 1994 between Elcin, the US president right-wing ultranationalist V. Žirinovskij had a good success. In foreign policy, the continuation of the disarmament talks led to the Moscow agreement of January 13, 1994 between Elcin, the US president B. Clinton and the Ukrainian head of state LM Kravčuk on the denuclearization of Ukraine and the handover of its atomic weapons to Russia; at the same time the latter and the United States undertook not to aim at their own missiles. In December 1994 the Russian army invaded Chechnya, a Caucasian republic declared independent from Moscow, and, after fierce fighting with the separatist guerrillas, occupied the capital Groznyj in February 1995. In May 1995, on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the victory in the Second World War, Elcin met in Moscow with the US President Clinton; however, the talks had a disappointing outcome as Elcin confirmed the Russian veto to join NATO of the countries of the former Soviet bloc (one of the main reasons for the conflict between Moscow and the Western governments, which would have been resolved, in relation to the Baltic countries, only in 2003) and did not officially commit itself to a peaceful resolution of the Chechen conflict. In June, a blitz by the Chechen separatists in the Russian city of Budennovsk, which ended in a bloody way, induced the prime minister Černomyrdin to enter into negotiations with the independence leader Džokar Dudaev, which resulted in only a brief respite. The war in Chechnya and the growing spread of organized crime negatively affected the popularity of Elcin and his government; in the electoral consultations held in December 1995 for the renewal of the 450 seats in the Duma, the centrist and reformist-inspired parties were thus clearly defeated by the communists of Gennadiy Zjuganov and the nationalists of Žirinovskij.

Despite thedebacleelectoral, Elcin and Černomyrdin continued their reform policy, while in Chechnya, after the killing of the separatist leader Dudaev, a new truce and an agreement for the withdrawal of the Russian troops were reached. In June 1996, the first round of presidential elections was held, which ended with the admission to the ballot of Elcin and the communist leader Zjuganov; after a hard-fought and uncertain electoral campaign, the ballot, which took place on 3 July, was overtaken by Elcin, who soon after confirmed Černomyrdin as head of the government. It was precisely the state of health of the president, who was forced to undergo a delicate heart surgery between the first and second elections, caused a phase of acute uncertainty and obscurity about the actual exercise of supreme power, apparently entrusted from time to time to “advisers” and officials outside the normal democratic political mechanisms; a phase that would in effect last for the entire second term of Elcin. On the other hand, the Chechen crisis appeared to be heading towards settlement, with the withdrawal of the Russian troops (October 1996) and the subsequent elections (January 1997), which gave the Chechen presidency to the moderate independence leader A. Maskhadov and inaugurated a new phase in relations with Fly. In the autumn of 1997, after years of sacrifice, the first good news on the economic front arrived for the Russian people: inflation under control, stabilized at around a respectable 15%, public spending in decline with a state budget substantially in balance, industrial production in clear recovery with a plus 7%, foreign investments up by as much as 300%, all data that bode well for the future of the country and that received the approval of the IMF. Even if the underlying problems persisted, Russia now seemed to have emerged from the political-economic abyss it had plunged into after 1992, having to its credit a private sector that now accounted for 70% of GDP and 130,000 privatized public enterprises (ca. 60% of the total).

Russia History - the Parliamentary Republic and the Chechen Question