Science and Culture of Slovenia

By | April 27, 2022


Slovenian industry employs 40.8% of the total employed population, the industry produces 29.9% of GDP. Together with construction and crafts, its share reaches 38% of GDP and 48.4% of the total number of employees.

Sectoral structure of industry in terms of the number of employees: metalworking, machine tool building and automotive industry – 20%, textile industry – 13.8%, timber processing – 8.4%, food – 7.8%, chemical – 6.6%, leather and footwear – 4, 2%, etc. Labor-intensive industries predominate, accounting for 36% of all employees. A slightly smaller share is occupied by technically highly equipped industries (mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and chemical industries), but their importance is constantly growing.

Ferrous metallurgy was one of the main industries for a long time, but due to the lack of raw materials, metal production was greatly reduced. Due to the depletion of reserves, the mines of mercury and lead were closed, due to excessive consumption of electricity, the production of aluminum and aluminum semi-finished products was called into question.

Metalworking is undergoing rapid development. The enterprises of this branch are located in 130 cities.

The food industry has changed radically. Instead of the former small mills, bakeries and dairies, slaughterhouses and breweries, large flour mills, milk processing and meat processing plants, beer factories, a sugar factory, wineries and cellars appeared.

An important place in the country’s economy is occupied by construction, which provides high-quality construction services abroad.

Slovenian transport employs 6% of all employees, its share in GDP is 7%. The first place in importance is occupied by road transport, followed by rail, air and sea modes of transport. The transport infrastructure is well developed, contributing to the development of both passenger and freight transport. A modern telecommunications system has been created in the country.

Until 1991, trade was concentrated mainly in large systems, which then broke up into smaller trading organizations. The number of stores doubled in the first 5 years of independence. The number of large retail stores, trading companies has grown, more than 6 thousand entrepreneurs are engaged in trade. Trade produces 10.5% of GDP. Services, including trade, occupy the 1st place in terms of share in GDP.

The central issuing and control body is the Bank of Slovenia. The Association of Banks of Slovenia includes 30 commercial banks, mostly of a universal type, incl. 4 foreign, with 218 branches throughout the country. The Ljubljana Stock Exchange has been operating since 1989.

Tourism in Slovenia is the most important sector of the economy. Mountain, coastal and medical types of tourism are mainly developed. The diverse natural conditions of the country, its beauty and sights, the opportunity to relax in the summer and winter seasons attract many foreign tourists. Tourism creates 4% of GDP, and together with related areas (trade, transport, crafts, computer science, banking services, public services) – 7.8% of GDP.

The Slovenian constitution and laws guarantee citizens basic social rights, including social protection for the disadvantaged and the disabled, free healthcare, pensions, protection of motherhood, childhood and old age. There is a system of compulsory medical, pension and disability insurance. Most of the costs of health care services (outpatient and inpatient treatment, the cost of medicines and benefits) are covered from the budget. Employees employed at enterprises are insured against accidents and unemployment without fail. The recent pension reform raised the retirement pension threshold to 65 years for men and 58 years for women, and a funded pension system has been introduced. An extensive service of social assistance to pensioners and elderly citizens has been organized. Working mothers enjoy paid maternity leave and maternity allowance. The state pays allowances for children, finances the work of preschool institutions.

Science and culture of Slovenia

In Slovenia, since 1998, nine years of education have been compulsory, which is provided by basic schools. More than 93% of graduates of basic schools continue their education in secondary vocational schools and gymnasiums. The term of study in gymnasiums is 2-3 years, in secondary technical schools up to 4 years.

According to craftinlearning, higher education is received by students at two universities – Ljubljana and Maribor, as well as in other higher educational institutions. The University of Ljubljana has 3 art academies, 20 faculties and 3 higher schools. The University of Maribor has 9 faculties and 1 higher school.

The main scientific institutions of Slovenia are concentrated in the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, founded in 1938. After the 2nd World War, new research institutions of the modern type were created: the Institute. Josef Stefan, Chemical Institute. Boris Kidric, Institute for Nationalities, Research Center of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts. The total expenditure on research and development activities is 1.7% of GDP. Slovenia participates in more than 300 international scientific projects of the European Union.

The most important cultural centers: the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, the Cankarjew House in Ljubljana, the National Gallery, the Modern Gallery, the National Museum, the Slovenian Ethnographic Museum, the Museum of Contemporary History, the physical and technical museums, and RTV Slovenia. The Ministry of Culture finances 71 cultural centers. 0.57% of GDP is spent on the development of culture.

Literary life in the country is very intense. Book publishing is carried out by 4 large, several medium and 10 small publishing houses, which publish more than 3 million books annually. New literary works are published in the journals “Modernity”, “New Review”, “Literature”, “Dialogues”. The Union of Slovenian Writers has about 300 members.

Theatrical art is developing in two folk opera and ballet theaters in Ljubljana and Maribor, in several drama theaters, and on amateur stages. Slovenia has two philharmonic societies, the RTV Symphony Orchestra, chamber musical ensembles, and singing societies. International festivals (music, theater) are regularly held, the international Preshernov Prize is awarded.

Education of Slovenia