Foreign Fighters from Russia and Central Asia Part III

Russia and Central Asia 3

8: Central Asian IS fighters About. 4,000 Central Asian foreign fighters are in Syria. Many are part of IS, but most will be with the Nusra Front (now: Al Sham, which seems to distance itself somewhat from Al Qaeda ). A few Central Asians are also in Chechen groups. Although the tendency is to cut all the Central Asian countries into one comb, these countries deal with foreign fighters very…

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Foreign Fighters from Russia and Central Asia Part II

Russia and Central Asia 2

5: Radicalization of Chechen separatists Most Russian foreign fighters in Syria come from Chechnya and Dagestan in the North Caucasus. Rebels in Chechnya have been aiming for independence from Russia since 1991, much to the concern of the central government in Moscow. The first Chechen war (1994–1996) ended with the Russian authorities withdrawing troops and postponing the fate of the republics. Already during and after the first Chechen war, the…

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Foreign Fighters from Russia and Central Asia Part I

Russia and Central Asia 1

In January 2017, Turkish authorities arrested a man from Uzbekistan. He was a member of the terrorist group Islamic State (IS) and is now suspected of having carried out the terrorist attack that killed 39 people at a nightclub in Istanbul on New Year’s Eve . The suicide bombers who blew themselves up at Istanbul’s Atatürk airport in 2016 came from the Russian republic of Dagestan and the Central Asian…

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Syria History: the 20th Century

Syria History - the 20th Century

Defeating Turkey in the First World War, the emir Fayṣal, son of the king of Higiaz, trusting in the English promises, entered Damascus (October 1918), and proclaimed himself (1920) king of Syria. In the same year France, already in agreement with England, expelled Fayṣal and was entrusted by the League of Nations Syria and Lebanon in “mandate”. The French tutelage was useful for the economic and cultural development of the…

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Syria Culture and Geography

Syria Culture and Geography

Syria, officially Arabic Al-Djumhurijja al-Arabijja as-Surijja [-d ʒ ʊ m-], German Arab Republic of Syria, state in Western Asia with (2018) 16.9 million residents; The capital is Damascus. Culture People lived in the Syrian cultural area as early as the Stone Age. In ancient times the country was under the influence of high cultures from Anatolia , Mesopotamia and Egypt. Numerous cities such as Hama, Damascus and Aleppo emerged on…

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Syria Country Guide

Syria Country

The country of Syria, officially the Arab Republic of Syria, is a country in Western Asia that covers an area of ​​approximately 185,000 km² with approximately 21 million inhabitants. Geography and population According to best-medical-schools, the country borders Turkey throughout the north. In the east it shares its border with Iraq. To the west is Lebanon the only neighboring country and are in the south of Israel and Jordan. The…

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Syria Everyday Life

Syria Syriatel

Currency: SYP Syrian pound Exchange rate: 1 EUR is approx. 588.94 SYP (January 2019) Time zone: UTC + 3 Country code (phone): 00963 Climate (for capital): Mediterranean Housing and supply The cost of living is quite low for Europeans due to the exchange rate, but can fluctuate considerably due to the current crisis situation. Due to the civil war, which has been affecting the country considerably since 2011, one must…

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Travel to Syria

Taxis in Damascus Syria

Entry and residence regulations A visa must be applied for at the Syrian Embassy in Berlin or the Syrian Honorary Consulate in Hamburg before entering the country. The applicant’s passport must not have an Israeli entry stamp or an entry stamp from border crossings to and into Israel (Allenby- / King Hussein Bridge between Israel and Jordan and Taba / Sinai border between Israel and Egypt). Visas are only issued…

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Syria Education and Health

Syria Education

Education No major reforms have taken place in the Ottoman Empire. At the turn of the century there were private schools, mostly French and some initiated by Arabs. There were Christian mission schools in the cities, the leaders of which were often Arabs. The Koran schools were widespread in smaller places and also in the cities and there were some religious universities. The Republic of Faisal 1919/1920 planned to expand…

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Syria Culture

Syria Culture

Damascus – UNESCO World Heritage Site Damascus is considered to be one of the oldest inhabited cities in the world. The origins go back to the 5th millennium BC. The city is a high oasis that was fed by the Barada and Awaj rivers. The city’s green belt, the Ghouta, supplied the city with agricultural products and fruit. The cultural development after the ’67 war Influenced by the defeat in…

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Syria Social Structure

Market in Amouda in northern Syria

Women and society Traditional women’s meeting Due to the gender segregation, women use their own traditions. The following quasi-institutionalized women’s meetings are taking place in the cities – although a decline has been recorded due to the increasing employment of women. Subhia: Informal Morning Visit (Coffee Gossip) This is a social tradition that is practiced by all women – regardless of their religion. Men are excluded from it. According to…

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Syria Religions and Ethnicities

Syria Umayyad Mosque at night

Current situation Due to the military clashes between sections of the Syrian opposition and the regime, the situation of the population has deteriorated dramatically in recent years. Over 4.8 million refugees are now registered abroad; in fact, far more people have left the country. The number of internally displaced people is estimated at over seven million. According to historyaah, life expectancy has fallen from 70 to 55 years in the…

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Syria Products and Production Methods

Water wheel in Hama Syria

Products and production methods In ancient times, olive oil, wine, cedar wood, purple-adorned fabrics, furniture with ivory inlays and glass products were exported to Rome from the Roman province of Syria, and spices and silk of Indian and Chinese origin came from here. The so-called “damask” has been supplied to Europe since the High Middle Ages. Only the olives and the textiles have retained their importance. According to homosociety, Syria…

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Syria Development Efforts

Tobacco is dried near Lattakia Syria

Millennium Development Goals: Poverty, Poverty Reduction, etc. In September 2000, the ” Millennium Conference ” took place in New York, at which representatives from more than 180 countries committed themselves to achieving eight goals by 2015: eradicate extreme poverty and hunger to enforce comprehensive compulsory education to empower women and achieve equality to minimize child mortality improve preventive health care and health care for mothers prevent the further spread of…

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Syria Economic Sectors II

Syria Agriculture on the Euphrates

Telecommunications industry According to the “International Telecommunication Union”, Syria had the fifth weakest telephone network in the Middle East before the war began. The whole country should not be networked until 2013. Mobile telephony was also comparatively poorly developed. Syriatel alone accounted for more than 50 percent of the market. In mid- 2004, the company spoke of around 820,000 customers. At the end of June 2007, according to the company,…

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Syria Economic Sectors I

Syria Roman mill on the Orontes

Under the rule of the Ba’ath Party, most of the larger companies in Syria were nationalized. Around 16 percent of all workers are employed in agriculture and industry, and 65 percent in the service sector. Since taking office, President Bashar al-Assad has in particular tackled the development of a private or partially privatized economic sector and facilitated foreign imports and investments. Since then, Syria has officially been in the “transformation”…

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Syria War Economy

The Syrian economy before the uprising

Estimated GDP: US $ 38 billion (estimated 2018) Per capita income (purchasing power parity): 2579 US $ (estimated 2019) Human Development Rank (HDI): 155 under 189 (2017) Share of poverty (less than $ 2 per day): 75% Distribution of income (Gini coefficient): n / a Economic transformation index: (BTI) Rank 128 (of 129) (2018) Syrian war economy According to militarynous, the civil war is destroying the economy in Syria. Today…

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Syria Opposition Groups

Map of Syria

Opposition In addition to the Free Syrian Army (FSA), the militant opposition is shaped by Islamist organizations that are either close to the Islamic States (IS) or Al-Qaeda. Free Syrian Army (FSA) According to naturegnosis, the Free Syrian Army (FSA) is the armed arm of the group “National Coalition of Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces” and is by no means a uniform organization. It is an alliance of different organizations,…

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Syria 2011 Uprising

Location of Syria

The 2011 uprising The civil war in Syria was triggered by the initially peaceful protests against the regime. People called for social reforms and political freedoms and the rule of law. However, the regime struggled with reforms and very soon responded with violence to protesters’ demands. There are riots. The uprising had meanwhile spread to all cities except Aleppo and Damascus. The reluctant reforms that followed could no longer calm…

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Syrian Foreign Policy

Syrian Foreign Policy

Syria and the Lebanese Civil War When the Lebanese left and the Palestinian organizations saw an election victory in 1976 in Lebanon, the civil war between the Palestinians, the Forces Lebanaises and the Kataib (Christian-Maronite militias) had just started. Syria now intervened in the civil war in favor of the Maronites. Syria, which had no mandate to invade, was mandated by the Arab League to act as a peacekeeping force…

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Syria Media and Human Rights

Syrian national flag

Alphabetized adults: 80% (2010, no current data) most important religion: Islam (Sunnis) other important religious communities: Christians, Alawis, Druze, Ismailis Urban population: 56% Life expectancy (female / male): 75/69 (2018) Gender Inequality Index: 136 of 160 (2018) Number of births: 2.92 / woman (2016) Media According to payhelpcenter, there is no independent media landscape in Syria. State and private media, which were founded especially since Bashar al-Assad took office in…

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Syria The Damascus Spring

Physical Map of Syria

When Bashar al-Assad took over the succession in 2000, his inaugural address raised hopes for reforms. The opposition immediately followed suit: 99 intellectuals demanded in a declaration (later called the “Manifesto of 99”) the lifting of the state of emergency, a general amnesty and the reintroduction of basic rights. Clubs, salons and debating circles emerged in private apartments. Civil society responded with these initiatives back to the public. Many clubs…

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Syria Government and Administration

Flag of the Syrian Revolutionary Movement

State and administration Politically and ideologically, the Assad regime is based primarily on pan-Arabism and socialism. The latter was no longer mentioned in the new constitution of 2012. In addition, the country is characterized by a complex system of patronage. In addition to supporting Russia, Iran and China, the Syrian security services (mukhabarat) play a central role in stabilizing the regime’s rule. Essentially, the mukhabarat consist of three main services…

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Syria Domestic Issues

Syrian coat of arms

Independence Day: April 17, 1946 Head of state: Bashar al-Assad (President of Syria since 2000) Head of government: Imad Khamis (Prime Minister of Syria since 2016) Political system: autocracy Democracy Status Index (BTI): Rank 135 of 137 (2020) Corruption Index (CPI): Rank 178 of 180 (2019) The Ba’ath Party In 1963, the Ba’ath Arab Socialist Party (Party of Revival) came to power. The party advocates nationalist and socialist principles. Their…

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History of Syria Part 3

Syrian thousand pound note

Parliamentary elections were held in December 1931 and January 1932. The national bloc, which was led by the notables, was looking for an “honorable cooperation” (President Jamil Mardam Bey) let in with the French and felt this in the election result: He received only 17 out of 69 seats. The French sought a treaty with Syria that provided for a common foreign policy between the two countries. Syria should be…

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History of Syria Part 2

History of Syria Part 2

The Muslims’ search for their own Arab identity fluctuated between pan-Islamism and an independent national approach within the borders of the Ottoman Empire. The response to the national awakening was immediate. The Tanzima reforms also included the first constitution, which, however, was repealed two years later, in 1878, by Sultan Abdalhamid II. Support for the Arabic culture and language was suppressed, so that many Syrian intellectuals had to flee to…

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History of Syria Part 1

History of Syria Part 1

The Islamic Conquest and the Crusaders The decisive battle of the Byzantine and Arab-Islamic forces took place in 636. Byzantine Syria is conquered by Arabs after the battle of Yarmuk. The center of Muslims in Arabia was relocated to Damascus in Syria by the Caliph Muʿāwiya in 661 after fierce internal Islamic fighting on the Arabian Peninsula. Damascus is now the capital of the Umayyads. This makes Syria the new…

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Syria History – pre-Islamic Period

Syria History - pre-Islamic Period

The pre-Islamic period The first traces of settlement can be found in Syria as early as the 7th millennium BC. prove. Some of these settlements – initially in the Euphrates and Tigris regions – grew into cities. In Ugarit, today Ras Shamra, Ebla, Qatana, Mari, Habuba Kabira, Hammam et-Turkman and Tell Brak, ideas of urbanization for an organized society developed. The first empires of the Egyptians, Hittites, Assyrians and Persians…

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Syria Overview

Syria Overview

Before the outbreak of civil war, the population in Syria was estimated at around 21 million people. More than 7 million people left Syria as a result of the civil war. According to the UNHCR, around 6 million Syrians outside Syria were registered as refugees. The war made between eight and nine million people internally displaced. According to UNHCR, over 2.7 million Syrians have fled to Turkey, which Turkey is…

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Syria Current Situation

Syria Aleppo Citadel at night

Due to its strategic location and foreign policy, Syria occupies a key position in the Middle East. The internal Syrian war, which has been raging since 2011, is being fueled by external actors who, with their particular interests in mind, are waging a proxy war on Syrian territory. Country overview & natural area With 185,180 square kilometers, Syria is about half the size of Germany. It lies between Turkey, Iraq,…

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