According to ITYPEMBA, New Delhi (New Delhi) – the capital of India – together with the area of Old Delhi (Old Delhi) is one of the largest and most colorful cities in the world. It is located in the central part of the country on the Jumna River. Legends speak of seven cities that existed on the territory of modern Delhi. But historical evidence suggests even more. It is believed that the city on the site of Delhi was founded by the heroes of the Mahabharata in the 12th century AD. Its original name was Indara Prasta. At this place, the first Muslim ruler of Delhi, Qutab-ud-Din Aibak, erected the famous Qutab Minar minaret – a high tower, which was completed by subsequent rulers. In the 17th-19th centuries Old Delhi was the main city of all Muslim India, and New Delhi was built in 1911, when the capital of India, formerly located in Calcutta, was moved here. Today, a striking contrast looms between the narrow streets of Old Delhi and the colonial mansions of the more modern part of the city – New Delhi. Many old fortresses and mausoleums, mosques and palaces are scattered throughout the city. Their intricate names are reminiscent of ancient history. At the same time, Delhi ‘s spacious streets and bustling bazaars are alive with modern life. Shopping malls, new public buildings, theaters, stadiums, hotels, art galleries, parks and entertainment venues are quite consistent with the current level.
One of the historical sights of Old Delhi is the Red Fort (Lal Qila). It is an octagon surrounded by a red sandstone wall. From the side of the river, the height of the walls of the fort reaches 18 meters, and from the side of the city – 33 meters. The Red Fort was built in 1648 during the heyday of the Mughal Empire and until 1857 was the residence of the rulers of the Mughal dynasty. Another historical value of this place is that it was here in 1947 that the English flag was lowered and the flag of independent India was raised.. Inside the fort you will find the Hall of General Audience, the Hall of Private Audience, the ceiling of which is supported by 32 carved columns, the Multicolored Palace, the Pearl Palace, the royal baths.
The largest mosque in India, with a capacity of 25,000 people – Jama Masjid. Its construction began in 1650 and was completed in 1658. 35 steps lead to the central entrance of the mosque. The architectural ensemble includes four towers, three large gates, two minarets 40 meters high. All this is built of red sandstone and white marble. The mosque contains the chapter of the Koran, written down under the dictation of the prophet Muhammad, his slippers, hair from his beard and the imprint of his foot on the stone.
Since the time of the Mughals in Delhi remains the Tomb of Gamayun. This mausoleum was built by order of the main wife of the second emperor of the dynasty in the middle of the 16th century. The building is made of white marble and red sandstone with high arched entrances.
15 km from the city there is an ensemble of the most ancient buildings of Delhi – Qutab Minar. They began to be built in 1193, after the conquest of Delhi by the Mughal Empire. It is a perfectly preserved example of early Afghan architecture. Qutab Minar is the tallest (73 m) tower in India. It was completed in 1368. On its walls there are many inscriptions about the construction and restoration of the tower and sayings from the Koran. Visitors are not allowed to enter. Next to the tower is the first built in India Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque. This mosque and minaret represent the remains of the first capital of the Muslim rulers of India, Rai Pithora. Near the Qutab Minar stands an iron pillar with Sanskrit inscriptions that has stood there since about the 5th century AD. New Delhi is located 2 km from Old Delhi. Its business center is Connaught Square. The area is surrounded by colonial-style buildings that house restaurants, shops, banks and tourist offices. Here begins the Rajpath street, which leads to the Gateway of India. They are a 48-meter arch, which was built in memory of the Indian soldiers who died in the First World War. About 17 thousand of their names are inscribed on it. In addition, in New Delhi you can see the Bahai Temple in the form of a lotus, the Rashtrapati Bhavan Palace (now the residence of the President of India), visit the National Museum of India – the leading historical and art museum in the country, which contains the richest collection of antiquities and archaeological treasures.
Chandni Chowk Market has an old-fashioned feel to it. It takes visitors to India as it was hundreds of years ago. Here on the shelves laid out a wide variety of goods and souvenirs.