According to ITYPEMBA, Tashkent is the capital of Uzbekistan, one of the largest cities in Central Asia and the only city in Central Asia that has a metro. Tashkent is located in the northeastern part of the republic in the foothills of the Tien Shan at an altitude of 440-480 m in the valley of the Chirchik River.
The first mention of the fortified city of Chach on the site of modern Tashkent dates back to the 2nd century BC. It was an important trading center. In the 8th century, Chach was destroyed by the Arab conquerors, and only in the 14th-15th centuries, under Emir Timur, the city again acquired the significance of a large trading city. For its history Tashkent changed many names, the current name, which it received in the 11th century, means “Stone City” in Uzbek. After the collapse of the USSR in 1991, the city became the capital of independent Uzbekistan and was separated into a separate administrative unit.
Tashkent is located in a zone of high seismicity; earthquakes have happened here more than once, which destroyed most of the city’s historical monuments. Despite the loss of many attractions, the Old City of Tashkent, which is called Eski-Shahar, is still the most remarkable place in the capital of Uzbekistan, here you can see unique monuments of medieval oriental architecture: mosques, madrasahs and mausoleums. One of them – madrasah Kukeldash. The madrasah was built in the second half of the 16th century during the reign of the Sheibanid dynasty. At the end of the 18th century, the madrasah was used as a caravanserai, and in 1860 it served as a fortress for the Kokand khans. Today, the madrasah is active: students live and study here. Its main portal has a height of about 20 m, it is decorated with blue and white mosaics. Next to the Kukeldash madrasah is the ancient city bazaar Chorsu. Since ancient times, Chorsu has been the largest shopping center in Tashkent. Not far from here is the Friday Mosque. (Juma). The first building of the mosque was built in 1451, however, as a result of an earthquake in 1868, it was destroyed. At the end of the 20th century, a new building was built here. Now the Tashkent Juma Mosque is the third largest Friday mosque in Uzbekistan. Also of interest is Khast-Imom Square, which is considered the religious center of Tashkent. The Barak-Khan madrasah of the 16th century is located here, where the world-famous Ottoman Koran of the middle of the 7th century, which is the primary source of the holy book of Islam, is stored, the Tilla-Sheikh mosque, the Kaffali Shashi mausoleum (1542), built in honor of Imam Abubakr ibn Ali ibn Ismail Al Kaffali Shashi, who introduced the Turks to Islam, and the Islamic Institute named after Imam Al-Bukhari. It is worth going to another ancient center of learning – the madrasah of Abdulkasim Sheikh of the 16th century. Initially, this complex was called Yangi Mahalla and included a mosque, a bathhouse and a madrasah. In 1892, after the death of the great thinker of the 19th century, Abdulqasim Sheikh, it was renamed. Next to the madrasah rises the Parliament building . Other sights of the Old City include the mausoleum of Sheikh Zainudin of the 16th century, the mausoleum of Sheikhantaur 14th century, where one of the withered sacred trees of the saurs, which, according to legend, grew at the stops of Alexander the Great, the mausoleum of Kaldirgochbiy and the mausoleum of Yunus-Khan of the 15th century, the mausoleum of Khalfo Bobo of the late 19th century and the clock tower Tashkent chimes, copying the Spassky tower of the Moscow Kremlin, has been preserved.
In addition to historical monuments, museums in Tashkent are interesting: Timurid State Museum, which tells about the history of the country, Museum of Art of Uzbekistan , whose collections include not only works by Uzbek painters, but also works by Western European and Russian artists, and the Museum of Applied Arts.
Modern monuments are no less interesting: the main square of the city – Mustakillik Square (Independence Square), where the administrative buildings of the Cabinet of Ministers and the Senate and the Independence Monument, made in the form of a globe with outlines of the state borders, the equestrian monument to Emir Timur and the television tower of Tashkent – are the most a tall building in Central Asia, its height reaches 375 m. The balneological resort “Tashkent Mineral Waters” is located
20 km from Tashkent specializing in the treatment of diseases of the musculoskeletal system, peripheral nervous system, digestive organs, gynecological and skin diseases. However, the main attraction of the outskirts of Tashkent are the Chimgan mountains stretching northeast of the city. They are part of the Chatkal Range of the Western Tien Shan. This is one of the most popular holiday destinations in Uzbekistan: Chimgan and Beldersay ski resorts are located here., holiday homes, climatic resorts and many hiking trails. The slopes of the Chimgan Mountains are covered with forests, among which rapid rapids flow with waterfalls (wonderful places for rafting) and there are lakes. These places are part of the Ugam-ChatkalNational Park, which protects the biodiversity of the mountain landscapes of the Western Tien Shan. It is worth remembering that at the entrance you will have to pay an environmental fee, as this is a protected area.
To the west of Tashkent, on the southeastern outskirts of the Kyzylkum desert, there is the Aidar-Arnasay system of reservoirs., which consists of three artificial lakes with brackish water: Aydarkul, Arnasay and Tuzkan, and covers an area of 4000 square meters. km. Aydarkul is the largest lake in this system (3000 sq. km) and the second largest lake in the state. In the vicinity of the lake there are yurt camps of Uzbek nomads, where you can get acquainted with the culture of the local population and taste national dishes. Desert tours on camels depart from the camps. In addition, Lake Aydarkul is perfect for fishing; carp, pike perch, bream, bream, catfish, asp, sabrefish and snakeheads are found here. A wide variety of waterfowl settle along the shores of the lake, among which there are such rare species as pink pelicans, swans, divers and egrets. On one of the peninsulas of the lake, the only one in Uzbekistan is equipped ostrich farm where you can watch the largest bird in the world.