Tehran (Iran)

According to ITYPEMBA, Tehran is the capital of Iran. This is one of the largest cities in the Middle East and the largest city in the country, its administrative, economic, industrial and cultural center. Tehran is located at an altitude of 1200 m on the southern slope of Mount Tochal, which is part of the Elburz Range. The elevation difference within the city is 700 m.

Mass migration to the small village of Tehran began after the Tatar-Mongols burned the nearby ancient capital of Persia, the city of Rey. The heyday of the city fell on the era of the Qajar dynasty. From 1795 to this day, Tehran has been the capital of Iran.

The modern part of the city stretches along the slopes of Mount Tochal, and at the foot of the mountain is the Old Town. The old city of Tehran was rebuilt in the late 19th century under the Qajar dynasty. Its main attraction is the Golestan Palace.. Literally, its name can be translated as “palace of roses”. The palace was built in 1576 and was used as the residence of the Iranian shahs until the 1979 anti-monarchist revolution. The palace complex consists of several dozen buildings. The most beautiful building is Shams-ul-Emaneh. It is built in a mixed Eastern European style. In front of Shams-ul-Emaneh is a vast pool. Today, the buildings of the Golestan Palace house the Anthropological Museum and the Museum of Photography, a portrait gallery, an art gallery with paintings by artists of the Qajar era, richly decorated halls and an old library. In the museums of the palace you can see collections of ceramics, stone and metal works, fabrics, musical instruments, clothing and weapons. The Marble Hall, built in 1806, is very beautiful. Social events were held here and in 1925, the coronation of Reza Pahlavi was held. The walls and ceilings of the hall are decorated with paintings, frescoes and wood carvings. In the Marble Hall, the symbol of the Iranian monarchy has been preserved – the ancient golden Peacock Throne, on which Persian shahs have sat since the middle of the 18th century. This throne was brought by Nadir Shah from India. On the territory of the Golestan Palace there is also the grave of one of the representatives of the Qajar dynasty – Nasreddin Shah.

Not far from the palace is the largest bazaar in the country. It consists of many galleries with shops. The best time to visit the market is on Friday. This is a great place for shopping, here you can buy almost any product, and to get to know the local population.

Another attraction of the Old City is the Shahid Mottahari Mosque. It stands on the Spring Square (Meydani Baharestan). The mosque was built by order of Nasreddin Shah in 1830. The area of ​​the mosque is 3700 sq. m, which makes it the largest mosque in Tehran. In addition, it is one of the most revered mosques in the country. It has 8 minarets and consists of numerous galleries decorated with ornaments. Other mosques in Tehran are also interesting: the Imam Mosque (Masjid-Imam) (1809-1849), the Shah Abdul Azim Mosque, the Sheikh Abdul Hussein Mosque and the Sepahsalar Mosque. Numerous palaces of Tehran are very beautiful. Some of the most impressive are the palace complexes of Saadabad and Niavaran, built in the early 20th century. Shah Reza Pahlavi lived in the Saadabad Palace, and members of his family lived in the Niavaran Palace. The palaces are surrounded by picturesque parks, and inside they are several museums with collections of Iranian works of art, as well as modern and prehistoric items.

The longest street in Tehran, Vali Asr Boulevard, runs along the Old City from north to south. Its length is 18 km. Along the boulevard are government offices, shops and restaurants. Local residents and guests of the city like to walk here.

Tehran is famous for its museums. The most popular museums in the city are the Bastan National Museum, which contains archaeological finds from the pre-Islamic period; the Abgineh Museum (Museum of Iranian Ceramics), which exhibits collections of ceramics and pottery; Rassam Carpet Museum, which has a carpet weaving school with collections of carpets from Tabriz, Kashan, Isfahan, Lorestan and Kerman (the oldest Persian carpet is stored here, whose age is 450 years); the Jewel Museum of the Central Bank of Iran , where collections of the Shah’s jewels can be seen; and the Reza Abassi Museum, which contains a rare collection of Iranian manuscripts and paintings.

At the western entrance to Tehran rises the Azadi Tower (Freedom Tower). Since its inception (1971), it has become an architectural symbol of Tehran. The tower was erected in honor of the 2500th anniversary of the creation of the Iranian Empire. It is often called the “Gate of Tehran”. The tower is built entirely of white marble. Its base area is 400 sq. m, and the height is 45 m. At the top of the tower there is an observation deck, which can be reached by elevator. At night, the tower is illuminated with multi-colored lights, which at certain moments paint it in the colors of the national flag. There is also a cultural complex where you can see archaeological finds.

On the southern outskirts of Tehran, where the capital of Persia, the city of Rey, was located in ancient times, the Tokrol tower of the 11th century has been preserved. Also in Tehran noteworthy are the cultural centers of Bachman and Kavaran and the 435 m high Borje Milad TV tower, which is the fourth tallest building in the world.

Particularly worth highlighting are the parks of Tehran. All of them in the city are about 800. In the parks of Tehran you will see a variety of cultural institutions, attractions, children’s towns and reservoirs. The most popular parks in the northern part of the city are Mellat (the largest park in Tehran, an area of ​​341.7 thousand square meters, Dar-Abad, Ferdowsi and Lale, located near the Tehran University.

In the vicinity of Tehran, it is worth visiting Imam Khomeini mausoleum. It is located just south of Tehran at the Beheshte-Zahra cemetery. This is a sacred place for every Iranian, because the leader of the 1979 Islamic revolution is buried here. The complex of the mausoleum includes four minarets with a height of 91 m.

40 km northwest of Tehran is the second largest city in the province of Tehran – Karaj. The city is interesting for the “pearl palace” Morvand of the 1960s, built by the sister of the last Shah of Iran – Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, in which the museum is located, and the Emir-Kabir dam, surrounded by many lakes that are part of the recreational zone. Emir-Kabir is a great place for summer holidays, where you can swim, go in for water skiing and go boating. Trout is found in the river Karadzh, which flows near the city, so the local places are famous among fishing enthusiasts.

50 km northeast of Tehran is the highest point in the country – the extinct volcano Damavend (5610 m). Damavend is also the highest point in the Middle East and the highest volcano in all of Asia. The slopes of the volcano are perfect for mountaineering and hiking. On the slopes of the volcano there are numerous hot springs with healing properties, picturesque waterfalls, one of which is the Ice Falls, considered one of the rarest in the world, as well as forests with a rich wildlife. All local routes start from the small village of Damavend.

To the north of Tehran in the Elburz mountains there are several ski resorts: Tochal, Shemshak, Dizin, Ab-e Ali and Darbandsar. The ski season lasts here from the end of November to the end of April. Moreover, you can relax in mountain resorts in the summer.

160 km south Tehran is interested in one of the most important religious centers of Iranian Shiites – the city of Qom. There are dozens of ancient Shiite schools and the mausoleum of Hazrat Masumeh of the 17th century, where the sister of the descendant of the Prophet Muhammad, the eighth Shiite imam, Imam Reza, is buried. 6 km east of Qom is a place of pilgrimage for Shiites – Jamkaram mosque. There is a belief among Iranian Shiites that it is in Jamkaram that Imam Mahdi will appear, who must restore justice on earth. Kevir National Park lies

100 km east of Qom and 120 km south of Tehran.. It is located at the western borders of the Deshte-Kevir desert. From the west, a vast salt lake adjoins the park, which is filled with water only in the winter months. In the park on an area of 4000 sq. km stretch desert and steppe regions. Often the landscapes of the park are compared with African ones. Wild donkeys, rams, sheep and goats, leopards, gazelles, wild cats, hyenas, wolves, jackals, desert foxes, hares and porcupines live here. Also in the park you can see birds such as flamingos, geese, ducks, pheasants, cranes and eagles.

Tehran (Iran)